Article by Polly Coram, solicitor with Jones Myers wills and trust department
To minimise legal costs, many parents who want to leave their estate to their children entrust its administration to friends and family instead of appointing a legal advisor.
A question we are frequently asked is, what will happen to the inheritance if a child passes away before the parent?
A competent Will writer would advise the parent, known as the testator, to include a substitute provision.
This makes it clear who their intended inheritance passes to – and in what shares – if a child dies first. However, we have witnessed a rise in homemade and simple wills that neglect to include this detail.
How to avoid a dispute between surviving children
Omitting this provision can spark a dispute between the surviving children over what should happen to that share. Should it be split between the remaining surviving children – or should it be passed on to the children of the deceased sibling, the testator’s grandchildren? This is a hugely emotive issue and can cause a great deal of tension and arguments within families.
The answer is within section 33 of the Wills Act 1837.That section provides that where:
(1) A testator leaves a legacy to a child or remoter descendant (such as grandchildren or great grandchildren); and
(2) That person dies before the testator, leaving issue (meaning children or remoter descendants); and
(3) Those children or remoter descendants are living at the date of death
Then the legacy is passed to the next generation in equal shares.
This means that if a child has died before their parent, and if they have three surviving children of their own, those children receive their grandparent’s legacy in equal shares.
If an estate has already been distributed incorrectly to the surviving children, the personal representatives are liable for the loss. These representatives could claim the money back from the surviving children, but the children may be able to raise what is called a ‘change of position’ defence – which protects them if they have already spent the money in good faith – and which could leave the personal representatives with a shortfall.
Such a situation is extremely damaging to a family that has already suffered a double loss, which is why taking early professional legal advice from experts is so important.
The administration of an estate is a complex and technical area. If you have any concerns, we always advise clients to have an initial chat with a member of our team so that disputes do not escalate and errors can be avoided.
About Polly Coram
Polly Coram has extensive litigation experience and has successfully resolved disputes on behalf of individuals, will writers, solicitors, charities and international insurance companies.
Her ability to unlock complex and long-running disputes is well known. Areas of specialism include high value/complex will and estate claims, administration disputes, will validity disputes and professional negligence claims. www.jonesmyers.co.uk